Sina Boroumandi (b. 1980 Tehan), uses various photographic methods to capture the ordinary urban landscapes in contemporary Iran. In the indirect method, he uses manipulated cameras to capture images on sensitive photographic surfaces, with long or doubled exposures, which are in contrast to the instantaneous and often random shots captured by the direct method. By combining these two contrasting image forms and other manipulative techniques in photography, the artist tries to provide a personal understanding of different forms of thought and ideology in modern Iranian life by considering different manifestations of ideology in specific historical periods. Sina Boroumandi has held eleven solo exhibitions in Iran, the Czech Republic, Poland, Scotland, and Germany and has participated in several national and international group exhibitions.